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The Effects Of Balance Of Trade Surplus And Deficit On A Country’s Economy
It is in no doubt that balance of Trade which is sometimes symbolized as (NX) is described as the Difference between the monetary value of export and import of output in an Economy over a certain period. It could also been seen as the relationship between the nation’s import and exports. When the balance has a positive indication, it is termed a Trade Surplus, i.e. if it consists of exporting more than is imported and a Trade Deficit or a Trade gap if the reverse is the case. The Balance of Trade is sometimes divided into a goods and a service balance. It encompasses the activity of exports and imports. It is expected that a Country who does more of exports than imports stands a big chance of enjoying a balance of Trade Surplus in its Economy more than its counterpart who does the opposite.
Economists and Government bureaus attempt to track Trade Deficits and Surpluses by recording as many transactions with foreign entities as possible. Economists and Statisticians collect receipts from custom offices and routinely total imports, exports and financial transactions. The full accounting is called the ‘Balance of Payments’- this is used to calculate the balance of Trade which almost always result in a Trade Surplus or Deficit.
Pre-Contemporary understanding of the functioning of the balance of Trade informed the Economic policies of early modern Europe that are grouped under the heading ‘mercantilism’.
Mercantilism is the Economic doctrine in which government control of foreign Trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the prosperity and military security of the state. In particular, it demands a positive balance of Trade. Its main purpose was to increase a nation’s wealth by imposing government regulation concerning all of the nation’s commercial interest. It was believed that national strength could be maximized by limiting imports via tariffs and maximizing export. It encouraged more exports and discouraged imports so as to gain Trade balance advantage that would eventually culminate into Trade Surplus for the nation. In fact, this has been the common practice of the western world in which they were able to gain Trade superiority over their colonies and third world countries such as Australia, Nigeria, Ghana, South Africa, and other countries in Africa and some parts of the world. This is still the main reason why they still enjoy a lot of Trade Surplus benefit with these countries up till date. This has been made constantly predominant due to the lack of technical-know how and capacity to produce sufficient and durable up to standard goods by these countries, a situation where they solely rely on foreign goods to run their Economy and most times, their moribund industries are seen relying on foreign import to survive.